“Prana” means life force and “ayama” means control. Our vitality depends on the air we breathe. The control of breathing is said as Pranayama.
In Pranayama, Breathing in is called as “Puraka”.
Holding the breath is called as “Kumbhaka”
Breathing out is called as “Rechaka”
Procedure -First of all sit in Sukhasana. Then slowly take a deep breath from right nostril while closing the left. Hold the breath as much as you can and then exhale slowly from left nostril while closing the right.
The time ratio of Inhalation (Puraka), holding the breath (Kumbhaka)and exhalation (Rechaka) should be 1:4:2. For ex; if you are inhaling for 4 seconds then you should hold the breath for 16 seconds and exhale the air out within 8 seconds. While holding breath (Kumbhaka), pull the chin down and touch it with the throat, it is called as Jalandhar bandh. For exhalation move the chin upwards.
The position of hand which is used to close the nostrils should be in Brahmi Mudra while another hand should be in Gyan Mudra.
Procedure - First of all sit in Sukhasana with Gyan Mudra. Then forcefully take a deep breath from both nostrils. Direct the breath to the throat and make it last for 3 to 4 seconds. It will create a peculiar "shh" sound. After that, hold the breath and touch the throat with your chin (Jalandhar Bandha), then raise the chin upwards and forcefully release the breath making "shh" sound. The ratio of inhale, holding the breath and exhale should be 1:4:2.
This Pranayama creates a cooling effect on body therefore it is called as Sheetali Pranayama.
Procedure - Sit in Sukhasana. Bend the tongue from both sides to make a funnel shape. Inhale air through the tongue and then hold the breath. After that, slowly exhale the breath through your nose. The ratio of inhaling, holding of air and exhaling should be 1:4:2.
In this pranayama a special sound "Siii" is produced therefore it is called as Sitkari pranayama.
Procedure - Sit with folded legs and straight back. Hands should be in Gyan mudra. Open your lips. Upper and lower teeth line should be placed in alignment one above the other. Then breathe in through mouth. Air upon entering between the teeth will create "Sii" sound. Hold the breath as much as you can and then exhale the air through nose.
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